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Berikut ini adalah kutipan pendahuluan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas Bahasa Inggris SD yang disusun oleh Ni Made Ratminingsih, semoga bisa memberikan sedikit gambaran dan tambahan referensi, khususnya bagi para sobat pengunjung blog Kumpulan Contoh PTK yang sedang sibuk menyusun PTK.
DRILLS AND TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE : AN ATTEMPT TO ENHANCE YOUNG LEARNERS’ ORAL COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE
Ni Made Ratminingsih
Ganesha University of Education
English language instruction for young learners in elementary schools across Bali province has been increasingly attended by the local government since 1994. In Singaraja particularly, almost all elementary schools in urban as well as rural areas, whether they are government schools or private ones, have introduced English language instruction in the school curriculum as a local content which is given to the students from grade four to grade six.
In order to actualize the competency-based curriculum as expected, there should be qualified teachers who possess an adequate competence to handle a good instruction. However, the researcher was shocked finding that among approximately a hundred English teachers in elementary schools in Buleleng district who participated in the refreshment program concerning with strategies of teaching English for young learners in 2006, there were around 80% of the teachers who did not have background education in teaching English. As a result, they possess lack of communicative competence. This can be proved from their conviction in an informal interview that they were unable to speak English fluently. As well, when they taught English to their students, they mainly emphasized the teaching of vocabulary and pronunciation, of course with limited ability in pronouncing the English words. The strategies of teaching they used were more conventional ones, mainly through translation and explanation in Indonesian language.
There are many things which can be effortlessly done by teachers to make the language instruction more challenging and interesting. Among others are the use of realia, pictures, photos, cards, games, and songs as well as more innovative techniques, such as Drills and TPR which give more focus on forming a new habit in the target language. Hence, the natural concept of learning can be realized, that is through the habitual activity of listening which is followed by drills to strengthen the comprehension of concept and the movements which are instructed by the teacher to actualize the words further sharpen the comprehension before the learners are able to produce the words themselves.
Klein (2005:12) cites that children generally have high motivation to study as far as their teachers are inventive in selecting the interesting activity for their students. As well, the teachers should be able to vary the lesson, so that the students do not easily get bored. Klein introduced the techniques of teaching which combine Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) and Communicative Language Teaching Method (CLTM). They are Drills and TPR. Being inspired from Klein, the researcher wants to assist English teachers in elementary schools, particularly in SD LAB Undiskha Singaraja to improve the students’ oral communicative competence. By utilizing these two techniques, not only vocabulary and grammar can be improved, but also speaking ability can be enhanced.
According to Brown (2001:131), drill is a technique of teaching which focuses on one or two language forms (grammatical structure or phonology) through several types of repetitions. Drill is generally handled classically or individually. There are several forms of drills, namely repetition drills, substitution drills, and moving slot substitution drills.
Brown (2001:133) further expresses that in a communicative-based language instruction, the use of drills can still be utilized. Drills are normally brief and for those students who have low level of language proficiency, drills are very suitable to help them to recognize structural patterns, rhythms, and certain elements of pronunciation. In order that learners are not seriously attempted to focus on grammar which is usually frightening, jazz chants variation can be used as a prior drill. Graham (1978 as quoted by Klein, 2005:15) states:
“...jazz chant is highly motivating because of their rhythms and humors. In addition, the young learners need not patiently remain in their seats. They can move, clap their hands, snap their fingers, or tap their feet. They are involved both mentally and physically. Songs, poems, chants, and similar activities reduce anxiety and increase the personal involvement of second language learners”.
TPR was firstly introduced by James Asher (1977, in Larsen-Freeman, 1986; Richards and Rodgers, 2003; Brown, 2001) with a concept that comprehension is the most important part for language learners. They should be given as much chance as possible to listen to the target language before being able to produce it orally. In assisting the learners to comprehend what is being heard, they can be helped by giving physical responses, such as reaching, grabbing, moving, looking and so forth. Asher, as well, gives attention to the use of right hemisphere of the brain as a physical activity, which precedes the process of language learning, which actually becomes the activity of left hemisphere (Brown, 2001:30).
The other crucial concept of TPR is that teachers should be able to create a stress free atmosphere of learning. The way to do so is by not forcing the learners to speak when they are not yet ready. The use of humorous expressions and fun activities can improve their motivation to study (Richards and Rodgers, 2003; Brown, 2001).
On the basis of the above theories, this study was sought to investigate whether Drills and TPR were able to improve the oral communicative competence of fifth grade of elementary students of SD LAB Undiskha Singaraja.
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Itulah tadi posting tentang Contoh PTK Bahasa Inggris SD. Terimakasih atas kunjungannya di blog Kumpulan Contoh PTK, n jangan lupa berbagi di Twitter atau Facebook sobat ya.. biar blog ini selain bermanfaat juga lebih terkenal lagi he he he. wassalam.